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Tự học Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành sinh học thông qua dịch tài liệu.

Ho Huu Tho

Member
Bạn gatokuto có thể đưa bản dịch của bạn lên đây để mọi người tham khảo và cũng là để những người khác tiện góp ý được không?
 

pththao

Member
Mình góp ý thêm là nên tự viết, chứ đừng dùng google, chỗ nào không biết có thể giữ nguyên tiếng Anh. Điều đó chứng tỏ tinh thần xây dựng của người đề nghị, và sẽ học được nhiều hơn.
 
"We developed a cell suspension culture system for zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) using 100 g fresh weight in-oculum in a batch culture. The maximum cell biomass of 68.46 g/L fresh weight was obtained after 14 days of culture in a 10 L bioreactor with a pitch-blade impeller maintained at an agitation speed of 150 rpm and an aeration rate of 2.5 L/min. The accumulation of sesquiterpenes and polysaccharide in zedoary cells from 2 to 18 days was measured by HPLC and a phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. The total polysaccharide concentration increased between 2 to 10 days of culture and reached a maximum value of 6.55%. HPLC revealed several eluted peaks of sesquiterpenes, which increased in amplitude from days 2 to 10. Furthermore, our results indicated that biotransformation occurred in the cell suspension, transforming certain sesquiterpenes into other types during culture. © KSBB"
Tạm dịch thế này:
Chúng tôi đã phát triển một hệ thống nuôi huyền dịch tế bào zedroary (
Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) bằng cách cấy 100g trọng lượng tươi cho một mẻ lên men. Sinh khối tuơi cực đại thu được là 68.46 g/L sau 14 ngày nuôi trong bình lên men dung tích 10L có cánh khuấy nghiêng ở tốc độ đảo 150 vòng/ phút và độ thông khí 2.5 L/phút. Sự tích lũy các sesquiterpen và polysaccharid bên trong các tế bàozedoary trong khoảng từ 2 đến 18 ngày, được đo lần lượt bằng phương pháp sắc ký lỏng hiệu năng cao HPLC và thử nghiệm acid phenol-sulfuric. Hàm lượng polysaccharid tổng số tăng trong khoảng thời gian 2 đến 10 ngày nuôi và đạt được giá trị cực đại là 6.55%. Kết quả HPLC cho thấy một số đỉnh tách của các sesquiterpen với biên độ tăng từ ngày thứ 2 đến ngày thứ 10. Ngoài ra, các kết quả của chúng tôi cũng chỉ ra rằng sự chuyển dạng sinh học xảy ra trong huyền dịch tế bào đã gây nên sự chuyển hóa các sesquiterpen thành những dạng khác trong quá trình nuôi.

- inoculum: sinh khối để cấy vào bình lên men (đã qua bước nhân giống)= giống cấp 1
 
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QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="31" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="32" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="33" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="37" Name="Bibliography"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" QFormat="true" Name="TOC Heading"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} </style> <![endif]--> "[FONT=&quot]In molecular biology, chaperones are proteins that assist the non-covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures, but do not occur in these structures when the structures are performing their normal biological functions having completed the processes of folding and/or assembly. The common perception that chaperones are primarily concerned with protein folding is incorrect. The first protein to be called a chaperone assists the assembly of nucleosomes from folded histones and DNA and such assembly chaperones, especially in the nucleus, are concerned with the assembly of folded subunits into oligomeric structures.
Chaperones do not necessarily convey steric information required for proteins to fold: thus statements of the form 'chaperones fold proteins' can be misleading. One major function of chaperones is to prevent both newly synthesised polypeptide chains and assembled subunits from aggregating into nonfunctional structures. It is for this reason that many chaperones, but by no means all, are also heat shock proteins because the tendency to aggregate increases as proteins are denatured by stress. However, 'steric chaperones' directly assist in the folding of specific proteins by providing essential steric information, e.g. prodomains of bacterial proteases, lipase-specific foldases, or chaperones in fimbrial adhesion systems[/FONT]"
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Mình xin dịch thế này:

Trong sinh học phân tử, protein bảo mẫu (chaperon) là những protein hỗ trợ cho sự cuộn gập hoặc duỗi cũng như sự họp nhóm hoặc giải họp nhóm liên kết không cộng hóa trị của các cấu trúc đại phân tử khác; tuy nhiên, điều này không xảy ra ở chính các cấu trúc protein đó khi chúng sắp thực hiện các chức năng sinh học của mình sau khi đã hoàn thiện các quá trình cuộn gập hay họp nhóm. Quan điểm chung cho rằng các chaperon chủ yếu liên quan tới sự cuộn gập của các protein là không đúng. Protein đầu tiên được gọi là protein bảo mẫu có chức năng hỗ trợ sự lắp ráp các nucleosome từ các histon đã cuộn gấp với phân tử DNA, và những chaperon giúp họp nhóm như vậy, đặc biệt là trong nhân tế bào, thì giúp cho sự lắp ráp của các tiểu đơn vị đã cuộn gập xong thành các cấu trúc dạng chuỗi ngắn.
[FONT=&quot]Các chaperon không nhất thiết là phải truyền đạt thông tin về cấu hình không gian cần cho các protein được cuộn gấp: vì thế các phát biểu như “chaperon làm cuộn gập các protein” có thể gây nhầm lẫn. Một chức năng chính của các chaperon là ngăn chặn cả các chuỗi peptid mới được tổng hợp lẫn các tiểu phần đã lắp ráp xong không bị kết tập thành các cấu trúc không có chức năng. Chính vì lý do này mà nhiều chaperon, nhưng không phải là toàn bộ, là các protein sốc nhiệt vì xu hướng kết tập tăng dần khi các protein bị biến tính dưới áp lực. Tuy nhiên, “các chaperon không gian” (chaperon lập thể) thì trực tiếp hỗ trợ sự cuộn gập của các protein đặc hiệu thông qua việc cung cấp thông tin cần thiết cho sự cuộn gập đúng cấu hình không gian, ví dụ như các vùng tiền Domain ở các protease vi khuẩn, các foldase đặc hiệu lipase, hoặc những chaperon trong các hệ thống bám dính ngoại biên.
- Mình đang phân vân giữa 2 nghĩa cho từ cuối cùng [/FONT]<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:punctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> <w:EnableOpenTypeKerning/> <w:DontFlipMirrorIndents/> <w:OverrideTableStyleHps/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin 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Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="19" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="31" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="32" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="33" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="37" Name="Bibliography"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" QFormat="true" Name="TOC Heading"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} </style> <![endif]-->[FONT=&quot]fimbrial adhesion systems[/FONT][FONT=&quot]: hệ thống bám dính ngoại biên hay ngoài rìa (fimbrial); ngoài ra, nếu ở vi khuẩn thì có thể hiểu là các protein bám dính thuộc cấu trúc khuẩn mao (fimbriae) hoặc lông nhung trong một số cơ quan ở động vật!!!
[/FONT]
 

orion8x

Member
tuy nhiên, điều này không xảy ra ở chính các cấu trúc protein đó khi chúng sắp thực hiện các chức năng sinh học của mình sau khi đã hoàn thiện các quá trình cuộn gập hay họp nhóm
Chính xác ra là, chaperone kg hỗ trợ các protein đã phát triển bình thường - là những protein đã trải qua quá trình cuộn-gập-gấp khúc đúng.

However, 'steric chaperones' directly assist in the folding of specific proteins by providing essential steric information
- Câu này phải đc hiểu là, chaperones hỗ trợ trực tiếp quá trình cuộn gấp của protein bằng cách cung cấp không gian cần thiết cho quá trinh cuộn gấp - định nghĩa cơ bản của chaperon, ngăn cách các protein mới sản xuất với ảnh hưởng của môi trường nội bào xung quanh(có khả năng tác động lên quá trình folding)
____________
P/s: Theo ý kiến bản thân mình, học tiếng Anh = đọc-dịch kg bao giờ là ý kiến hay. Thay vào đó là đọc, đọc, đọc - tới mức độ nào đó là đọc-hiểu. Đọc-dịch chỉ làm suy thoái khả năng tiếng Anh của bạn thôi ^^. Y! kiến nho nhỏ, xin đừng ném đá:mrgreen:
 

Ho Huu Tho

Member
However, 'steric chaperones' directly assist in the folding of specific proteins by providing essential steric information
- Câu này phải đc hiểu là, chaperones hỗ trợ trực tiếp quá trình cuộn gấp của protein bằng cách cung cấp không gian cần thiết cho quá trinh cuộn gấp - định nghĩa cơ bản của chaperon, ngăn cách các protein mới sản xuất với ảnh hưởng của môi trường nội bào xung quanh(có khả năng tác động lên quá trình folding)
Orion8x có thể giải thích tại sao ở đây cụm từ "essential steric information" lại phải được hiểu là "không gian cần thiết"? Theo mình thì "information" có nghĩa là "thông tin", chứ không thể là "không gian" được. Và nếu như vậy thì cả cụm từ sẽ cần được hiểu là "thông tin lập thể thiết yếu" hay "thông tin thiết yếu về cấu trúc không gian" chứ?
 

Ho Huu Tho

Member
"[FONT=&quot]In molecular biology, chaperones are proteins that assist the non-covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures, but do not occur in these structures when the structures are performing their normal biological functions having completed the processes of folding and/or assembly. [/FONT]"
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Trong sinh học phân tử, protein bảo mẫu (chaperon) là những protein hỗ trợ cho sự cuộn gập hoặc duỗi cũng như sự họp nhóm hoặc giải họp nhóm liên kết không cộng hóa trị của các cấu trúc đại phân tử khác; tuy nhiên, điều này không xảy ra ở chính các cấu trúc protein đó khi chúng sắp thực hiện các chức năng sinh học của mình sau khi đã hoàn thiện các quá trình cuộn gập hay họp nhóm.
Tôi đồng ý về cơ bản với ý dịch của bạn trừ chỗ in đậm, vì theo cấu trúc câu văn tiếng Anh thì chủ ngữ của về câu đó không phải là "điều này", mà chính là "chaperone proteins". Cũng vì thế mà động từ "occur" ở đây cần được hiểu là "có mặt", chứ không phải là "xảy ra".
Tóm lại, theo ý kiến tôi thì phần in đậm cần đổi lại thành "các chaperone không có mặt"
 

orion8x

Member
However, 'steric chaperones' directly assist in the folding of specific proteins by providing essential steric information

Orion8x có thể giải thích tại sao ở đây cụm từ "essential steric information" lại phải được hiểu là "không gian cần thiết"? Theo mình thì "information" có nghĩa là "thông tin", chứ không thể là "không gian" được. Và nếu như vậy thì cả cụm từ sẽ cần được hiểu là "thông tin lập thể thiết yếu" hay "thông tin thiết yếu về cấu trúc không gian" chứ?
Thứ nhất về văn phong. Kéo lên phía trên một chút, ngay đầu đoạn 2 có dòng "Chaperones do not necessarily convey steric information required for proteins to fold". Câu này hoàn toàn chính xác (về phía tôi). Nhưng ở dưới lại là "providing essential steric information". Ở đây tác giả lí luận bất nhất. Từ "require" và "essential" đều mang nghĩa như nhau, nhưng "essential" mang một nghĩa rất rất rất quan trọng kg thể thiếu. Câu dưới khá đối lập với câu trên

Thứ 2, về knowledge. Trước hết chuỗi aa là thứ duy nhất essential cho cấu hình 3-D của protein. Câu hỏi đặt ra: Thế chaperone làm gì!? Xin giải thích một chút về môi trường nội bào, chúng gồm rất rất nhiều đại phân tử mà tính chất (vật lí) có thể tương tác lên 1 phân tử khác - ở đây là protein chuẩn bị Fold. Đó gọi là molecular crowded (hay là molecular crowed environment). Chaperone chức năng như một cái hũ kín, cho chuỗi protein vào - fold - đi ra, ngăn cản các tác động của molecular crowded lên protein. Bản thân protein tự fold trong chaperone.
Điều này dễ chứng minh, trong vitro, nhìu thí nghiệm denature rồi lại renature protein vẫn fold lại đúng cấu hình của nó mà kg cần sự trợ giúp nào khác.

Vấn đề của mình, đồng ý về mặt dịch thuật câu đó nghĩa là "cung cấp thông tin lập thể thiết yếu" như bạn nói. Mình chỉ chỉnh sửa tính chính xác của vấn đề. (Đoạn này đc lấy từ en.wiki - mà ai cũng biết wiki rồi đấy.....)
 

Ho Huu Tho

Member
Kéo lên phía trên một chút, ngay đầu đoạn 2 có dòng "Chaperones do not necessarily convey steric information required for proteins to fold". Câu này hoàn toàn chính xác (về phía tôi). Nhưng ở dưới lại là "providing essential steric information".
Theo tôi thì không có gì mâu thuẫn trong văn bản tiếng Anh cả, vì đoạn trên đề cập tới chaperone nói chung, còn đoạn dưới mà orion8x nói đến lại đề cập đến một trường hợp riêng lẻ của chaperone, đó là "steric chaperone" (chaperone lập thể). Chaperone lập thể có những đặc điểm mà chaperone nói chung không có là chuyện dễ hiểu mà.
Thứ 2, về knowledge. Trước hết chuỗi aa là thứ duy nhất essential cho cấu hình 3-D của protein. Câu hỏi đặt ra: Thế chaperone làm gì!? Xin giải thích một chút về môi trường nội bào, chúng gồm rất rất nhiều đại phân tử mà tính chất (vật lí) có thể tương tác lên 1 phân tử khác - ở đây là protein chuẩn bị Fold. Đó gọi là molecular crowded (hay là molecular crowed environment). Chaperone chức năng như một cái hũ kín, cho chuỗi protein vào - fold - đi ra, ngăn cản các tác động của molecular crowded lên protein. Bản thân protein tự fold trong chaperone.
Điều này dễ chứng minh, trong vitro, nhìu thí nghiệm denature rồi lại renature protein vẫn fold lại đúng cấu hình của nó mà kg cần sự trợ giúp nào khác.
Tôi không biết gì về lĩnh vực kiến thức này, nhưng phần in đậm dường như không phải bao giờ cũng đúng. Các protein có cùng một trình tự aa nhưng có cấu hình không gian khác nhau và tính chất khác nhau không phải là trường hợp hiếm gặp, điển hình như trong bệnh prion chẳng hạn.
 

orion8x

Member
Thành thực mà nói thì tôi nghĩ rằng steric chaperone là 1 cách nói cũ của chaperone dựa trên cấu hình 3-d của protein đc hình thành nhờ vào sự hỗ trợ của nó. Thử search trên ncbi với chính xác cụm "steric chaperone" chỉ cho ra vài kết quả !? Và những article đó mô tả chúng rất chung chung và kg có gì đặc biệt so với chaperone thường đc học.
Quan điểm của tôi là chuỗi aa là thứ duy nhất cần thiết cho cấu hình 3-d của protein, nhưng kg phát biểu rằng 1 chuỗi aa => 1 cấu hình duy nhất. :oops: (mà ý là 1 cấu hình thì cần 1 chuỗi aa thích hợp)
Yep! Hsp104 là trường hợp đặc biệt liên quan đến prion, nhưng những chaperone khác, với kiến thức nông cạn thì miền nghĩ là chaperone kg làm nhiệm vụ "khuôn đúc" cho protein. Sự thực là chỉ 1/3 protein đc process vào ER để fold, còn lại tự fold lúc vừa đc tổng hợp.

What kind of thing would a biomed researcher do!?
 

phoenix202

Member
#2.9
“Arms Races”
Individuals and species must “track” their environments in ecological and evolutionary time, adapting and evolving as their environments change. Natural selection acting on natural enemies (prey, parasites, and predators) will always result in a deterioration of an organism’s biotic environment, diminishing fitness. Every prey-predator or host-parasite interaction constitutes an escalating “arms race,” in which moves alternate with countermoves.
Cái câu "“track” their environments" có thể dịch là "phải "bám sát" với môi trường của chúng" được không(nghĩa là sinh vật phải có sự thay đổi phù hợp để thích nghi khi môi trường thay đổi):???:
 
Large scale growth of bacteria

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[FONT=&quot]fermentation: the fermentor was inoculated with the 10 liters of culture, described above at midnight and left overnight with slow agitation (45 rpm). At 9 AM , turbidity (Kleet, 540 nm) was over 300 units, corresponding to a cell denity of about 2,5 g/liter. The continuous sterilizer was steamed for about 30 minutes. Feeding of medium, which include the sodiumsulfide, commenced at 9:45 AM at a rate of 1.5 liters/minutes, with a holding temperature of 130 for 2 minutes.[/FONT]
 
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[FONT=&quot]fermentation: the fermentor was inoculated with the 10 liters of culture, described above at midnight and left overnight with slow agitation (45 rpm). At 9 AM , turbidity (Kleet, 540 nm) was over 300 units, corresponding to a cell denity of about 2,5 g/liter. The continuous sterilizer was steamed for about 30 minutes. Feeding of medium, which include the sodiumsulfide, commenced at 9:45 AM at a rate of 1.5 liters/minutes, with a holding temperature of 130 for 2 minutes.[/FONT]
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Four 190- liter batches of medium were fed, and the tank contents were then cooled and harvested, except for 12 liters, which were removed aseptically as an inoculum for next run.[/FONT]
 
Kì này em học môn anh văn chuyên ngành mà trình độ of em thì... hic.. đây là bài tập đầu tiên thầy giao cho e dịch thế này ace xem giúp rồi cho ý kiến ạ! Thanks so much^<!!
LIVING THINGS
All things can be classifiled as living or non-living. Biology provides the criteria that we use to differentiate between the two classes. These criteria include the presence or absence of life activities such as movement, response, reproduction, growth, and respiration.
Movement often indicates that things are living. Plants as well as animals, move. For example, if a plant is placed near a window, it will grow towards the light. The movement is a reponse of the plant to the light. When a driver sees a red light, he stops his car. He is responding to the red light. The ability of living things to respond to their surroundings helps them avoid danger and get the things they need.
Reproduction and respiration are other life activities. No more animal and plant can live forever, but they ability of living things to reproduce has enabled life to continue for millions of years. Respiration is very important because it helps supply the energy required for all life activities.
[dịch]
Sinh vật sống<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p>
Mọi thứ có thể được phân loại thành dạng sống hay không sống. Sinh học cho ta những tiêu chuẩn để phân biệt giữa 2 loại đó, những tiêu chuẩn đó bao gồm sự xuất hiện hay không của các hoạt động sống như: di chuyển, phản ứng, sinh sản, sinh trưởng và trao đổi chất.
Sự chuyển động thường là dấu hiệu cho biết đó là một sinh vật sống. Thực vật cũng như động vật đều chuyển động, ví dụ nếu 1 cây được đặt gần cửa sổ, nó sẽ phát triển theo hướng ánh sáng; khi một người lái xe nhìn thấy đèn đỏ, anh ta cho dừng xe lại, đó là phản ứng trước đèn đỏ của con người. Sinh vật sống có khả năng phản ứng lại với môi trường xung quanh giúp chúng tránh khỏi những mối nguy hiểm và đạt được những cái mà chúng cần.
Sinh sản và trao đổi chất là 2 hoạt động sống khác. Không một sinh vật nào có thể sống mãi mãi nhưng chúng có khả năng sinh sản để có thể duy trì thế hệ trong hàng triệu năm. Trong đó trao đổi chất đóng một vai trò rất quan trọng bởi vì nó cung cấp năng lượng cần thiết cho những hoạt động sống của sinh vật.
 

Ho Huu Tho

Member
Theo mình phần dịch của bạn tốt rồi, những chỗ bạn thay đổi cấu trúc câu hay ghép hai câu làm một nghe có vẻ xuôi hơn cả bản gốc. Một góp ý nhỏ cho bạn:
- respiration: hô hấp
- sinh vật sống: "sinh vật" thì đương nhiên là sống chứ nhỉ?
 
Theo mình phần dịch của bạn tốt rồi, những chỗ bạn thay đổi cấu trúc câu hay ghép hai câu làm một nghe có vẻ xuôi hơn cả bản gốc. Một góp ý nhỏ cho bạn:
- respiration: hô hấp
- sinh vật sống: "sinh vật" thì đương nhiên là sống chứ nhỉ?
mình tra từ điển thì đúng từ respiration là hô hấp nhưng mà theo mình cái chỉ rõ cho sự sống là trao đổi chất sẽ hay hơn là sự hô hấp nên cố ý thay như thế^^..
cảm ơn góp ý of a Thọ!! :)
 

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