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Đây là một bài review được Nature đánh giá cao trong tháng 11 vừa qua. Tui cứ để đến đây cho anh em mình đọc chơi. Còn anh chị nào có hứng thú thì xin mời vừa dịch vừa học. Nhưng nhớ lên tiếng trước để người khác cùng ... hy vọng. Khi dịch các anh chị có thể post từng phần, SHVN sẽ giúp các anh chị hiệu chỉnh, và đương nhiên là bản quyền bản dịch thuộc về các anh chị.

Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6, 872-881 (2005); doi:10.1038/nrm1744


Michele Boiani & Hans R. Schöler ? about the authors

Max-Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Mendelstrasse 7/Von-Esmarch Strasse 56, 48149 Münster, Germany.

correspondence to: Hans R. Schöler schoeler@mpi-muenster.mpg.de

Mammalian development requires the specification of over 200 cell types from a single totipotent cell. Investigation of the regulatory networks that are responsible for pluripotency in embryo-derived stem cells is fundamental to understanding mammalian development and realizing therapeutic potential. Extracellular signals and second messengers modulate cell-autonomous regulators such as OCT4, SOX2 and Nanog in a combinatorial complexity. Knowledge of this circuitry might reveal how to achieve phenotypic changes without the genetic manipulation of Oct4, Nanog and other toti/pluripotency-associated genes.

Multicellular organisms require the existence and precise control of STEM CELLS that maintain tissue HOMEOSTASIS by replacing terminally differentiated, aged or injured cells. In addition to naturally occurring somatic stem-cell systems, such as the haematopoietic system in the fetus and the adult, stem cells can be obtained from peri- and early post-implantation-stage EMBRYOS. From an ontogenic perspective, embryo-derived PLURIPOTENT stem cells might be considered to represent an archetypal genomic state from which other patterns of genome activity ensue later in development. These embryo-derived stem cells have been categorized using different names (EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS (ESCs), embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs), and embryonic germ cells (EGCs); Fig. 1). Although these distinctions are blurred and the different cells have many overlapping features, embryo-derived stem cells are unified by some distinct advantages compared to adult stem cells. They are easier to identify, isolate and to maintain as established stem-cell lines, which can